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Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.951.862 von Popeye82 am 14.10.17 06:18:11
Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.951.868 von Popeye82 am 14.10.17 06:29:10Largest Gold Discovery in >133 Years

"The Chinese government has actively launched numerous policies to guide and support the development of the non-ferrous
metals industry. The “One Belt and One Road” Summit Forum for International Cooperation was held in Beijing in May this
year, which is expected to create new development opportunities for the non-ferrous metals industry. Many countries
participating in the “One Belt and One Road” initiative are rich in mineral resources, which is strongly complementary with
China as the major consuming country. Strengthening investments in mineral resources exploration and development and
cooperation with countries within the “One Belt and One Road” sphere would play a vital role in strengthening China’s
diversified supply sourcing and enhancing its risk protection capabilities. Furthermore, “One Belt and One Road” would
promote the trade development of bulk commodities, thus potentially driving up commodity prices from the import and
export perspective.
As an important participant of China’s “One Belt and One Road” initiative, Myanmar has a strategic geographical location
and is the largest neighbor of China in terms of size, with a long border between the two countries. In April, Htin Kyaw,
President of Myanmar who has taken office for more than a year, visited China for the first time. During the visit, he
proclaimed that the participation in “One Belt and One Road” would strengthen Myanmar’s cooperation with other countries,
and also provide development opportunities for the country in trade, investment and infrastructure construction. Cooperation
in the field of mineral resources is an important integral part of the “One Belt and One Road” strategy. Myanmar has rich
mineral resources. However, its mineral resource exploration, development, and mining capabilities are relatively antiquated,
and its infrastructure is lacking. By making use of China’s strength in equipment, technology and capital, Myanmar could
develop the mining industry and its economy, and at the same time, help optimize China’s mining industry structure.
Looking forward to the second half of 2017 at the international market, the basic metal market is expected to experience
some adjustment fluctuations. In terms of LME copper, as the anticipated impact of U.S. interest rate increase is falling, the
LME copper setback would stabilize. Conversely, copper demand may stall because of the upcoming consumption decline
during the off season, so the LME copper is expected to experience some adjustments. For LME zinc, cancelled warehouse
warrants for LME zinc have increased apparently, indicating that the zinc stock is in decline. Couple that with the anticipated
tight supply should lend support to the zinc price, experiencing some fluctuations.
In the domestic market, the development of the non-ferrous metal industry will face both challenges and opportunities in the
second half of 2017. The commodity market will be subject to a cautiously-optimistic environment and continue to be slightly
fluctuative. Being an important development sector in the “One Belt and One Road” strategy, the non-ferrous metal industry
should seek opportunities to make positive reforms on the supply side,
and increase profitability and stabilize development

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.966.428 von Popeye82 am 17.10.17 15:34:44er kann SPRECHEN
(muss wohl studiert haben)

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.966.629 von Popeye82 am 17.10.17 15:57:06JUST the facts

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.966.629 von Popeye82 am 17.10.17 15:57:06er kann auch noch SEHEN
(wohl hochbegabt)

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 55.951.925 von Popeye82 am 14.10.17 07:26:21NEXT Novo

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.053.403 von Popeye82 am 29.10.17 18:18:50
aussie hunters

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.067.638 von Popeye82 am 31.10.17 19:21:06
Approximately 98% of the world’s supply of cobalt comes from copper and nickel production, with 15 mines representing half of the world’s supply. This makes the supply stream for cobalt highly sensitive to disruptions caused by mine related issues. A recent example was the shutdown of copper mining in the Katanga Province in the DRC due low copper prices, which cut 3% of the world’s cobalt supply.
"Rise of the lithium ion battery megafactories: what does 2018 hold?
11th December 2017Announcements, Batteries, Benchmark, Gigafactory, Megafactory, TeslaBenchmark Mineral Intelligence

Since Benchmark Mineral Intelligence coined the term Battery Megafactory in 2014 the landscape of the lithium ion battery industry has changed significantly.

Early on, Benchmark noticed a step change in the way battery supply and demand was developing and the corresponding growth in the size of planned cell production plants on a multi-gigawatt scale. These larger facilities, with a capacity of producing 1GWh or more of cells per year (megafactories) were to become the new standard for the industry.

At the time, there were only three planned plants, Tesla’s Gigafactory in the US, LG Chem’s plant in Nanjing, China and Foxconn’s plant in Anhui, China which didn’t make it off the drawing board.

Today the Benchmark Mineral Intelligence megafactory tracker includes 26 battery cell plants that are either in production and due to expand capacity or new operations due to be in production by 2021.

The combined planned capacity of these plants is 344.5GWh. To put that into perspective total lithium ion cell demand in 2017 is estimated at 100GWh.

In the past 3 years China has been leading the way in investment for these megafactories, but more recently the rest of the world – most notably Europe – has woken up to the energy storage revolution and the need for locally produced cells.

China is still by far the dominant force in the industry with 49% of planned capacity totalling 169 GWh, the most recently added Chinese megafactory to the tracker was number 24, Great Power’s planned 10GWh plant in Guangzhou.

Following China is the EU, totalling 23% of planned capacity or 78.5GWh. Prior to 2017, the EU was falling far behind the rest of the world, with just one plant planned by LG Chem in Poland with 5GWh capacity.

The acceleration of activity in the European market was driven by two facilities – TerraE’s 34GWh facility in Germany and Northvolt’s 32GWh offering in Sweden. Europe is also the home for megafactory number 25, SK Innovations plant in Hungary with a capacity of 7.5 GWh.

Whilst the US is third on the list, with 53GWh and 15% of capacity it is worth noting that Tesla has further expansions planned for the Gigafactory beyond 2021 and have stated publicly that they expect to be able to achieve 150GWh out of the plant, no small feat as they get to grips with the mass market scale of production of the Model 3.

Lithium ion in 2018? More of the same

So what does the future hold? Benchmark expects the trend to continue into 2018 with new plant announcements likely.

Tesla is still to release official details of the planned facility in Shanghai , China which we fully expect to become a vertically integrated battery facility, and there will likely be further offerings (or joint ventures) from other auto manufacturers looking to build the foundations to become leaders in the EV space.

Raw material security is now firmly on the agenda of many major auto manufacturers – VW and China’s Great Wall Motor have been the most active in trying to secure lithium and cobalt of late.

However, the question remains whether auto majors are fully comfortable with their lithium ion battery supply of which the vast majority of near term new capacity is being build in China.

Europe, especially, is some way behind in the race to build out new cell capacity while North America is still heavily reliant on a successful Tesla Gigafactory ramp up and if successful will still be captive supply for world’s highest profile EV manufacturer.

And while many megafactories are being announced, how many will be realised, at what capacity and by when? This is one of the biggest risks the auto manufacturers face in the next 5 years.

Further battery supply growth expectations may seem excessive considering the new lithium ion battery pipeline is at the 344.5GWh mark… but the industry needs it.

Benchmark forecasts world lithium ion battery demand to grow by between 6 and 7 times by 2026 which will require a battery pipeline of nearly double what we have today.

Constructing the plants is relatively easy if the funding and drive is there from the battery manufacturers, but if and when that problem is solved an even bigger one is faced: sourcing the raw materials to feed them and building out the supply chains for the 21st century energy storage revolution.

Benchmark Mineral Intelligence is the industry’s leading source of lithium ion battery market data and analysis. We publish monthly price assessments for lithium, graphite and cobalt.

Each year we also host the Benchmark World Tour investment seminars and industry conferences, Cathodes Conference and Graphite + Anodes.

To subscribe or for more email: info@benchmarkminerals.com

WATCH: Star appeal: Elon Musk shows Leo DiCaprio the Tesla Gigafactory"


"Resources industry recovery to gather momentum in 2018: analysts
December 11, 2017News Australian Mining

Mining’s recovery in Australia has been forecast to accelerate into 2018 and beyond.

According to BIS Oxford Economics’ Mining in Australia 2017 to 2032 report, mining exploration, production and maintenance are all expected to lift significantly through 2018.

BIS has forecast the industry to track even higher in subsequent years as strengthening global economic growth supports commodity prices and underwrites new investment and mining operations expenditure.

Mining production only grew 2.5 per cent in 2016/17, according to Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data, but BIS expects growth to accelerate to 5.5 per cent in 2017/18, with even stronger growth over the remainder of the decade.

“The enormous investment boom is now translating into production, particularly within oil and gas, where Australia is expected to become the leading LNG (liquefied natural gas) exporter by 2022,” BIS Oxford Economics Economist Rubhen Jeya said.

“Growth in mining production will be roughly double the pace of the national economy over the next five years.”

According to BIS, the completion of a $200 billion wave of LNG projects over the coming year will see aggregate investment decline further over the next two years.

The forecaster added, however, that this masked the start of a new cycle of investment across a range of commodities including copper, gold, coal and iron ore.

“The completion of the Wheatstone, Ichthys and Prelude projects will subtract a further $20 billion in mining investment over the next two years,” BIS Oxford Economics construction, maintenance and mining associate director Adrian Hart said.

“But excluding oil and gas, mining investment elsewhere is expected to grow at a double-digit pace over 2017/18 and 2018/19 – and will also continue to grow robustly through the subsequent three years.

“Considering that most LNG investment from here represents imports in any case, the time has come to stop blaming the mining investment bust as the reason behind sluggish Australian economic growth.”

The stronger investment outlook does not include Adani’s $16 billion Carmichael coal project in the Galilee Basin, which has not been included in BIS’s base case scenario for the next five years.

Hart said the Carmichael project was unlikely to proceed given long-term steaming coal price projections, relatively high development costs and risks to finance.

“But there are other coal projects which have re-opened or been put back into development because of stronger coal prices compared to the trough in early 2016. The outlook for coal remains positive, although prices may slip back a little in 2018,” Hart said.

“If the Adani coal project did eventuate, there would be significant upside to Queensland’s coal production forecasts, but not until the 2020s.

“In the meantime, such a large investment would likely erode confidence to invest in coal elsewhere, with negative implications for investment and production in the Hunter region, traditionally Australia’s largest thermal coal exporter.”

Higher prices for most commodities over the past year have led to a turnaround in exploration activity, BIS reported. The forecaster estimates exploration activity to rise 8.7 per cent in 2017/18 – and nearly 40 per cent over the next five years."
"Der grösste Absatzmarkt für REEs ist ebenfalls China and sie erhöhen weiterhin ihre Importe an REE-Feedstock (Rohmaterial), um ihre stets wachsende Downstream-Produktionsindustrie zu stillen.“

Ryan Castilloux: „Wird ein westliches Unternehmen, das einen Deal mit einem chine- sischen Unternehmen hat, unat- traktiver für andere Länder und Unternehmen?
Ich denke nicht. Am Ende des Tages ist China der weltweit grösste Nachfrage- markt für REEs und dieses Nachfrage- niveau wächst schneller als jede ande- re Region. Darüberhinaus gibt es in der Welt ausserhalb Chinas (mit Ausnahme von Japan) einen Mangel an Produk- tionskapazität zur Umwandlung von REE-Feedstock und REO (“Rare Earth Oxides“) zu Metallen, Legierungen, Magneten und anderen Mehrwert- produkten, die globale Konsumenten wollen. Daher macht es Sinn, dass aufstrebende Produzenten im Westen erwarten sollten, wenigstens etwas von ihrem Output an Käufer in China zu verkaufen.“

Rockstone Research: „Auf der diesjährigen REE-Konferenz in Hongkong wurde argumentiert, dass China viel mehr an der Wertschöpfung interessiert sei, die sich aus der Weiterverabeitung mit REEs ergibt, anstatt nur die Feedstock-Kornkammer für sich und den Rest der Welt zu sein. In dieser Hinsicht haben einige Redner argumentiert – allerdings am überzeugendsten Ryan Castilloux von Adamas Intelligence – dass China mit aller Wahrscheinlichkeit in absehbarer Zukunft ein Netto-Importeur von REE-Feedstock wird!“ "
"Ucore Applauds Signing
of 2018 National Defense Authorization Act

December 13, 2017 - HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA - Ucore Rare Metals, Inc. (TSXV:UCU) (OTCQX:UURAF) ("Ucore" or the "Company") is pleased to comment on the signing yesterday of the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act by President Trump. The Act features a number of initiatives of strategic importance to Ucore, including the authorization for $5 million in funding for the development of strategic materials technologies at the Army Research Laboratory ("ARL") during the coming fiscal year.

The $5 million program has direct import to Ucore, as the funds have been set aside for the "development of improved manufacturing technology for separation, extraction, smelter, sintering, leaching, processing, beneficiation, or production of specialty metals such as lanthanide elements..." The lanthanide elements comprise the suite of metals more commonly referred to as the Rare Earth Elements. As previously stated in a report by the Senate Armed Services Committee, this significant funding is allocated for domestic producers that the Department believes are likely to initiate commercial production of such materials within the next five years.

"This historic legislation demonstrates our unwavering commitment to our men and women in uniform -- the greatest fighting force in the history of the world," commented President Trump. "The National Defense Authorization Act could not come at a more opportune or important time. In recent years, our military has undergone a series of deep budget cuts that have severely impacted our readiness, shrunk our capabilities, and placed substantial burdens on our warfighters. Today, with the signing of this defense bill, we accelerate the process of fully restoring America's military might."

"This is an important step towards promoting a secure supply of critical materials such as rare earth elements," said Jim McKenzie, President & CEO of Ucore. "By authorizing this funding, Congress has reaffirmed the importance of strengthening supply chains for strategic and critical materials. Ucore enthusiastically looks forward to competing for the Army Research Lab's funding."

"As an industry leader in extraction and beneficiation technologies, we are ideally suited to assist the US Department of Defense in promoting supply chain security for strategic and critical materials," said Steve Izatt, President and CEO of IBC Advanced Technologies. "Molecular Recognition Technology ("MRT") provides a domestic platform for the technical capabilities needed to safely and sustainably create a stable U.S. supply chain for these strategic materials."

The House of Representatives and the Senate passed the $700 billion bill for fiscal year 2018 in mid-November, and the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act approving spending levels for U.S. military efforts was signed into law by the President Tuesday afternoon at the White House.

About IBC

IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. is an award-winning, green chemistry selective separations company based on innovative MRT products. IBC is headquartered in American Fork, Utah, with manufacturing facilities in Utah and Houston, Texas. IBC has supplied industrial, governmental and academic customers worldwide with environmentally friendly products, processes and services for over 29 years. IBC specializes in MRT, utilizing green chemistry to achieve highly selective separations of metal ions in complex matrices. Based on Nobel Prize-winning technology (1987), IBC's proprietary products and processes are used worldwide by premier metals refining and mining companies such as Tanaka Kikinzoku K.K. (Japan), Asarco Grupo Mexico (USA), Impala Platinum Ltd. (South Africa), and Sino Platinum (China). In 2014, the Japanese Government (Mitsubishi Research, Inc.) awarded to IBC a highly competitive subsidy grant, "Demonstration Project for Seawater Purification Technologies", concerning the selective separation of the radionuclides strontium and cesium from contaminated seawater at Fukushima, Japan.

IBC's expertise is illustrated by its extensive development and commercialization of separations systems for platinum group metals ("PGM's") at a world level. PGM's are analogous to REE, in that they are considered difficult to selectively separate due to their constituent chemical similarities. The Ucore-IBC alliance builds on IBC's proven capabilities to develop, scale-up and commercialize selective separations systems for a number of diverse and complex applications. See www.ibcmrt.com for additional information.

About Ucore

Ucore Rare Metals is a development-phase company focused on rare metals resources, extraction and beneficiation technologies with near term potential for production, growth and scalability. On March 3, 2015, Ucore announced the development of a joint venture with IBC for the deployment of Molecular Recognition Technology for REE and multi-metallic tailings processing applications in North America and associated world markets. The Company has a 100% ownership stake in the Bokan project. On March 31, 2014, Ucore announced the unanimous support of the Alaska State Legislature for the investment of up to USD $145 Million in the Bokan project at the discretion of the Alaska Import Development and Export Agency ("AIDEA").

For further information, please contact Mr. Jim McKenzie, President and Chief Executive Officer of Ucore Rare Metals Inc. at: +1 (902) 482-5214 or visit <http://www.ucore.com>."


"National Australia Bank to stop funding new thermal coal projects

The National Australia Bank (NAB) has opted to stop extending financial support to future thermal coal mining operations.

According to the banking institution, the decision is intended to ensure an orderly transition to a low-carbon economy.

However, NAB will continue to support its existing customers across the mining and energy sectors, including those with existing coal assets.

In a statement, NAB said: “An orderly approach to the low-carbon transition is critical to ensure Australians can continue to have access to secure, reliable and affordable energy and support our economy.”

Last month, Commonwealth Bank indicated to its shareholders that there would be a likely decline in its financial support for the coal industry.

Welcoming NAB’s decision, Greenpeace campaigner Jonathan Moylan said: “This is a market-leading position for an Australian bank and is even stronger than the position taken by Commonwealth Bank last month because it is formal policy.”
“All over the world, financial institutions are turning their backs on coal after realising its contribution to climate change.”

All over the world, financial institutions are turning their backs on coal:):):) after realising its contribution to climate change and the damage it does to the health of communities and the planet.”

The decision comes at a time when companies worldwide from several industries are taking steps to ensure the rise in temperate is limited to 1.5°C, in accordance with the Paris agreement.

Earlier this month, Dutch multinational banking and financial services firm ING revealed its policy initiative to nearly eliminate exposure to coal power generation by 2025.

The firm will stop funding utility companies that are dependent on coal for more than 5% of their energy.

In 2015, Rio Tinto chose to extend its greenhouse gas emissions reduction programme to 2020."


"Kinshasa — Mining companies in the Democratic Republic of Congo have urged legislators to rethink new legislation that could lead to acrimony between the government and the industry.

Local subsidiaries of Glencore, China Molybdenum, Randgold Resources, Ivanhoe Mines and MMG sent a letter, which has been seen by Bloomberg, to Leon Kengo wa Dondo and Aubin Minaku, respectively the presidents of the senate and national assembly.

They asked them to "suspend the process of adopting the text in its current version" and to "organise a true consultation of the mining industry".

On December 8, the national assembly approved legislation that increases royalties on copper, cobalt and gold to 3.5%, introduces a profit-windfall tax and doubles the state’s free share to 10%. It also reduces the period during which contract stability is guaranteed to five years from 10 years.

The bill has been transferred to the senate and, if passed, will be sent to President Joseph Kabila to be signed into law.

While parliament closed on December 15 and its regular business resumes only in mid-March, an extraordinary session of both chambers is scheduled to start on January 2.

The senate is due to examine the mining legislation, according to a statement signed by Minaku on December 17.

The new law would "significantly lessen the confidence of investors in the regulatory environment" of Congo and discourage investment, according to the letter. It would reduce the state’s tax receipts from mining and also threaten jobs, social programmes and infrastructure projects, the companies said.

Mining Minister Martin Kabwelulu did not respond to calls and text messages.

‘Lasting dispute’

Congo is Africa’s biggest copper producer and the world’s largest source of cobalt. The current mining law, which was promoted by the World Bank and adopted in 2002, attracted billions of dollars of investment from mining companies including the letter’s signatories, as well as Freeport McMoRan.

While the economy has grown, two-thirds of the population of about 80-million people live on less than $2 a day and the annual budget has never exceeded $10bn.

The government first introduced the revised mining code to parliament in 2015 and withdrew it before it was debated on account of a slump in metal prices and fierce industry opposition.

The state-owned mining company Gecamines has claimed that revenue generated by its partnerships with major mining companies have been lower than expected and the government hopes to take a larger share following the resurgence of key commodities.

The price of copper has risen 31% so far in 2017 while cobalt is up 130% in the year.

Last year, Congo produced 1.02-million tonnes of copper and 68,822 tonnes of cobalt, the key battery component of electric vehicles.

The mining industry’s concerns have not been heard and proposed modifications have been "largely ignored", according to the letter.

Such an approach is likely to cause "a lasting dispute" as the companies and their shareholders will "protect their investments by all domestic and international means at their disposal", it says.

The signatories offered to support a consultation to come up with another mining code during 2018.

The dispute echoes the South African Chamber of Mines’ battle with the Department of Mineral Resources and minister Mosebenzi Zwane over the third iteration of the Mining Charter.



"Editor's Note: View Kitco News' full 2018 outlook coverage

(Kitco News) - Known as a fan favorite, the Expert Series brings together well-known investors and Kitco regulars to find out where they will be putting their money in 2018.

This year, in a new twist to the feature Kitco News has asked some of the most influential mining sector newsletter writers how they would invest $100K in the mining sector.

While the mining sector has struggled to maintain momentum, 2017 has been anything but boring with new assets like cryptocurrencies making waves in financial markets. What does 2018 have in store? Check out what the mining experts have to say!

Experts: Brent Cook & Joe Mazumdar

Claim to Fame: creator and co-editor of Exploration Insights

1. How would you invest $100k in the mining sector in 2018?

We will continue to invest in junior mining companies whose upside potential is underpinned by exploration success. Given the a dearth of quality, high margin projects held by major and mid-tier producers, our focus will be on early stage exploration projects seeking these projects. This is especially true in the gold sector where the gold price is range bound with a strong resistance level at US$1,300 per ounce and marginal resources are the norm. Given the poor financing environment for non-cash flowing junior explorers, we will have a certain portion of our portfolio invested in active prospect generators that are signing deals with major producers who are ‘running to stand still’ with respect to their reserve and production growth opportunities.

Our commodity focus will be on precious metals such as gold and silver, base metals such as copper and zinc, and battery metals such as lithium. Assets in mining friendly jurisdictions, with progressive tax and royalty structures that allow companies to generate a return that is commensurate with the risks they absorb, will also be an important investment criteria.

2. What will affect gold most in 2018?

Given the current global geopolitical environment, the number of potential scenarios for 2018 are almost infinite. In our view the extended bull market run is long in the tooth and we suspect that the underlying risks pose the potential for several black swan events that could very well come to the forefront in 2018. Higher interest rates are coming; however, the number of rate hikes are the question and some are already baked into the current gold price, so any changes to the forecast is critical. The consensus forecast is for three rate hikes in the New Year but a new head of the Federal Reserve will be appointed, so we are not sure what impact this will have.
The reforms in the US tax code and low interest rates have supported the US equity markets suggesting that greed eclipses fear at this stage. This is reflected in the low volatility rates (VIX<10) and high valuations of very risky speculations across the board. The lack of fear has curtailed the demand for safe haven assets. In 2017, the surge in cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, which was up ~19x to a mid-December peak, has hived off some of the safe haven and ‘store of value’ demand from gold.

Gold prices have been supported predominantly by investment demand, specifically ETFs, over the past year hence any changes on this source of demand would have a significant near term impact on it. Although inflows have slowed, they remained net positive in 2017. Any combination of additional interest rate hikes than forecast, strong equity markets, and a continued expansion of investor interest in cryptocurrencies would be negative for gold in 2018.

3. What do you see as 3 top mining companies for 2018? Why?

Our choices for top companies in 2018 are all involved in exploration or prospect generating and provide exposure to gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lithium.

Advantage Lithium (AAL.V)- An explorer in the ‘Lithium Triangle’ of northwest Argentina in a joint venture with Orocobre (ORL.T, ORE.ASX)—the only lithium producer in the Salar de Olaroz-Cauchari. AAL’s property package straddles a lithium development play operated by a joint venture between a major producer, Sociedad Quimica y Minera SA (SQM.NYSE), and Lithium Americas (LAC.T).

Tinka Resources (TK.V)- The zinc explorer achieved its goal of expanding the Ayawilca resource through the discovery of South Ayawilca in 2017, and both the market (+265% year to date at Nov 11, 2017 peak) and the industry (Winner of the 2017 Mining Journal Explorer of the Year Award) have recognized its efforts. The company delineated a high grade zinc resource containing 5.6 billion pounds grading 7.3% zinc equivalent at its wholly-owned Ayawilca project in a prolific belt of central Peru in November 2017, and continues to drill to infill and expand the resource outline and quantify the potential of its land package. We have owned Tinka since PDAC 2017 and continue to recommend the stock due to the paucity of high quality zinc projects in mining friendly jurisdictions.

Evrim Resources (EVM.V)- This Americas focused prospect generator has recently signed significant project earn-ins for different projects, including a copper porphyry in eastern British Columbia (Axe project) with a major copper producer, Antofagasta Minerals (ANTO.LSE). EVM is taking full advantage of the lack of grassroots exploration projects generated by major precious and base metal producers and has planned a grand total of 24,000 to 34,000 meters of drilling for 2018; therefore, plenty of newsflow to come. It also has five active joint ventures and a regional exploration alliance in its assets.

4. What 3 investments would you avoid in 2018? Why?

We will most likely avoid adding uranium producers, leveraged gold plays, and primary cobalt explorers to our portfolio in 2018. We think that the uranium inventory overhang on the market is significant and will require a few years before it becomes manageable. In the interim producers are looking at spot prices of US$20-25 per pound of U3O8 with no significant long term contracts being signed at higher levels. More curtailments by major uranium producers will help, along with a faster rise in global demand.

As gold producers have been writing off millions of ounces of reserves due to the challenging economics of high cost gold production at reserve prices levels closer to current spot levels, we don’t think that marginal gold assets will catch a bid in 2018 with respect to M&A.

Primary cobalt producers will be on the high end of the cost curve as the vast majority of production is as a by-product from copper and nickel production. Also, we are concerned that evolving battery technology may require less cobalt. We prefer to gain exposure to the growth in electric vehicles’ production via the sector’s demand for lithium and copper.

5. If you could describe 2017 in one word, what would it be?

“Twilight-Zone” - We had anticipated a ‘Twilight-Zone’ scenario for 2017 and we think the description remains appropriate. On the global front an emotionally unstable narcissist became the most powerful man in the world, a mentally unstable man gained nuclear capabilities, Brexit lumbered forward, facts became illusory, the Mid-east splintered even more and stock markets and speculative assets surged.

Within the mining sector, the flow of funds dwindled as institutional money dried up, yet a very few exploration stories headed to the moon (at least temporarily). We witnessed individual junior exploration companies stocks gaining 100’s to 1,000’s of percent based on visual descriptions of core, geophysical anomalies and big concept ideas, but minimal hard data. We think this is a another indication that reality, facts and science took a back seat to hype, ignorance and greed in 2017. This can’t continue indefinitely and we expect (hope) that hard data and reality will gain credence in 2018.

6. What are your thoughts on bitcoin in 2018?

Although we recognize the value of blockchain technology, in our opinion cryptocurrencies are the poster child of the “twilight-zone” speculative world of 2017. These are complex algorithms requiring massive amounts of energy to produce something with a cost of mining that is unpredictable and, that only exists on your hard-drive and in the minds of those who own them.

Exploration Insights intends to stick with what we know best--mining and exploration with the confidence that quality mineral deposits will always be valuable.

7. Any additional comments

We think 2018 will be a volatile year for nearly all investment classes with uncertainty and greed being the driving force. This means that in the mining and exploration sector one will not be able to rely on a “greater fool” buying your mistakes. Due diligence with regard to geological, resource, social and political aspects of any metal project will be critical to winning or losing on investments in this sector.
By Neils Christensen

For Kitco News "
Setting Up a Canadian 'Supercluster'; the Canadian Government is offering C$950,000,000, to five 'superclusters', that serve as innovation hubs for their respective industries. The Ontario mining submission proposes to reduce Canadian mining's energy +water use, +environmental footprint. Julian Turner examines the project's feasibility

"Coal should be replaced with clean technologies, well before the 2025 deadline"; the UK government has published its plan to phase out unabated coal use by 2025 after consulting on proposals on how to achieve this target


"The prime minister announced in September last year that the government would proceed with regulating the closure of coal power generation units after already cutting emissions by over 40% since 1990.

Through the consulting, the department for business, energy and industrial strategy has decided to introduce an emissions intensity limit of 450g of CO2 per kilowatt-hour on, or from, October 1, 2025. The limit will be applied to units that burn any solid fossil fuel, but not to those that convert fully to other fuels.

"We consider that the appropriate means to guarantee the closure of unabated coal by 2025 will be to set a new emissions intensity limit to generating units, which provides coal generators with more flexible options of investing to reduce emissions to a level in line with our decarbonisation pathway," the department said in a document on government response to the consultations.

By the government's assessment, the closures of unabated coal would yield guaranteed reductions of 15 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, which in turn would guarantee lower harmful air pollution such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.

"The UK has been at the forefront of encouraging the world to move towards clean growth and is proud to have been one of the first countries to commit to ending unabated coal generation," it said.

Greenpeace UK head of energy Hannah Martin praised the plan as "significant progress on making coal history," adding that the government shared credit for this with millions of UK citizens who had supported the move.

"But it is important that this is carried through, and the government must provide enough parliamentary time to do it properly. Coal should be replaced with clean technologies well before the 2025 deadline if we are to stay global leaders in tackling climate change," she said.

The department said in the document that it had considered bringing the date forward, but had assessed 2025 as appropriate, taking into account the need to ensure security of electricity supplies, maintain affordability and the benefits of emissions reductions.

The majority of remaining coal power stations are expected to close by the early 2020s, with only around 1.3 gigawatts of unabated coal capacity likely to still remain by 2025. These closures will be supported by the relatively poor economics for coal generation and the effects of carbon pricing.

The country has been lowering the use of coal generation in the electricity system since it launched the consultation in November 2016, largely driven by the country's carbon price support and the increase in low carbon generation on the system.

The department noted that the level of coal generation in 2016 fell to 9% of overall power generation, from 22% in 2015, and, in the June quarter of 2017, it fell to a record low of 2%.

Over the same period, low-carbon generation supplied more than 53% of electricity and, in April 2017, it had the first 24-hour period without coal on the system since 1882."

- The diamond blockchain will be open to everyone in the industry, offering the potential for monitoring each and every stone. (Image: Copacabana | Shutterstock.) -

"De Beers readies technology aimed at eliminating ‘conflict diamonds’
Firm is developing open platform that traces rocks from mine to buyer

Anglo American’s De Beers, the world’s largest rough diamond producer by value, plans to launch this year the first industry-wide blockchain platform, which will enable greater tracking of gems being traded worldwide.

The technology, which De Beers began developing last year, allows tracing each diamond throughout the entire value chain — from mine to buyer. It would make of the company an industry leader in terms of ensuring both that gems don’t come from war zones where they could be used to finance violence, and their authenticity.
"The open platform will trace the diamonds’ route through the value chain, from mine to consumer, ensuring their authenticity and that they are not from conflict zones."

Despite the establishment of the Kimberley Process in 2003, aimed at removing those so-called conflict diamonds from the supply chain, experts say trafficking of precious rocks is still ongoing.

De Beers believes its development should help solve that problem. “Diamonds hold enduring value and represent some of life’s most meaningful moments, so it’s essential to provide assurance that a diamond is conflict-free and natural,” chief executive Bruce Cleaver said in a statement.

“We are very excited about this initiative and the benefits it could deliver across the diamond value chain, from producers through to retailers and consumers,” he added.

Blockchain is a shared database of transactions maintained by a network of computers on the Internet, currently being employed in the bitcoin sector.

De Beers decided to develop its diamond blockchain platform following mounting concerns from customers, who wanted proof the diamonds they were acquiring had not been used to fund conflicts.

The company sells its diamonds mostly to authorized buyers at a series of so-called “sights” in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Then, they are normally sent to be polished or cut before ending up with retailers."
Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.637.881 von Popeye82 am 06.01.18 16:41:55http://www.thebull.com.au/articles/a/71460-bhp-to-exit-globa…

"BHP to exit global coal body over climate change policy

19.12.2017 03:33 PM
The world's biggest miner BHP said Tuesday it would leave the World Coal Association and review its membership of the US Chamber of Commerce membership to show support for action on climate change.

The Anglo-Australia giant has been undertaking a review of its industry group memberships to see if their stances aligned with the firm's view that climate change had to be tackled with emissions reductions and the use of renewable energy.

The 22-page report, released Tuesday, found the organisations as well as the Minerals Council of Australia held different positions from BHP.

It said it was making a preliminary decision to part ways with the WCA, which would be reviewed by March next year.

The global lobby group had favoured the dumping of a clean energy target, which supports investment in renewables in Australia, as it preferred the use of cleaner coal technologies instead.

In contrast, BHP said it held a policy of tackling climate change through encouraging both the use of renewable energy and cleaner technologies.

BHP said it also disagreed with the US Chamber of Commerce's rejection of the Paris Agreement and a carbon-pricing policy, and would decide on whether to leave the organisation by March.

"Emissions reductions are necessary to mitigate climate change," the report said, outlining BHP's stance in support of the Paris pact.

"An effective global framework to reduce emissions should use a portfolio of complementary measures, including a price signal on carbon."

The Paris deal was sealed under previous US president Barack Obama, but his successor and climate sceptic Donald Trump pulled out of it in June.

The miner said it would remain in the MCA as the firm was still benefiting from its membership, but threatened to quit the Australian group if it did not refrain from lobbying in favour of coal power.

The decision to exit the WCA came as some governments look move away from coal-fired power, a key driver of global warming and air pollution.

Global demand for the fossil fuel is forecast to remain flat between 2017 and 2022, resulting in a "decade of stagnation for coal consumption", the International Energy Agency said Monday.

Rio Tinto, the world's second-largest miner, in September completed the sale of most of its Australian coal assets to China-backed Yancoal.

Rio's divestment drive is expected to lead to a complete exit from the coal sector
Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.760.552 von Popeye82 am 18.01.18 20:17:17http://www.bhp.com/media-and-insights/reports-and-presentati…

"Andrew Mackenzie, Chief Executive Officer
German-Australian Chamber of Industry and Commerce Asia-Pacific Regional Conference, Perth, 4 November 2017.

Check against delivery.

President Steinmeier, Prime Minister Turnbull, Prime Minister Alka-tiri, and visiting foreign dignitaries. Premier McGowan, Minister Cormann, other Government Ministers and parliamentarians, Dr Lienhard and ladies and gentlemen.

It is always good to be in Western Australia - home of our Pilbara iron ore operations, nickel business and half of our Petroleum division. We employ more than 16,000 people here and are proud of our many contributions to this great state. Our success has been, and will continue to be, made possible by our strong relations with the WA government and with the people and local communities they represent.

I am pleased that so many people from so many different backgrounds have come together at this conference. Though many of us are already connected by business, government and culture, we can deepen these relations over the weekend and make new ones.

As a research fellow in Aachen and Jülich from 2000 to 2002 I built many friendships and a love of Germany that remain strong today.

The diplomatic relations between Australia and Germany span decades and have led to partnerships on trade, investment and innovation. We share common values on open trade, beliefs in fairness, inclusion and cultural diversity, and a commitment to multilateral solutions to the world’s biggest challenges and opportunities.

Three years ago, the Australia-Germany Advisory Group, under my predecessor as President of the German-Australian Chamber of Commerce, Lucy Turnbull, developed a plan for more trade and investment between our countries and for greater cooperation in science and education. All designed to get the world and our countries on a higher growth path for the sake of those who feel left behind and of young people, and for the environment.

This plan is now affected by increased concerns about globalisation.

The America First policy of the Trump administration, the results of many European votes, and arguably the outcome of the NZ election, appear in conflict with the liberal multilateral consensus.

Although Kanzler Merkel won the most votes in Germany’s recent election, the increase in AfD’s share in a country that has invested so heavily in social infrastructure so its people benefit from a global connected economy confirms that these concerns about globalisation are widespread.

Globalisation is seen as the reason why many people have been left behind. And everyone here today is touched by this. For me the decisions by the United States to withdraw from the TPP and Paris are a big disappointment, as I campaigned hard for both of them.

No global company can afford to ignore the challenge of those who feel left behind.

I applaud the actions by the Australian and German governments, and Germany’s leadership in the margins of this year’s G20, to establish stronger bilateral frameworks and partnerships that allow business and governments to work and grow together.

I have three suggestions for business to get behind the Advisory Group’s agenda that Lucy Turnbull started.

First, business must work with governments to secure even greater bilateral and multilateral cooperation.

For example, the Australian-EU Free Trade Agreement will provide benefits to both. In my role as President of the German-Australian Chamber of Commerce I have promoted the use of German technology to keep Australian mining at the forefront of innovation.

In my recent conversations with the Mexican Foreign Affairs Minister I learnt that Mexico, where we are a major investor, now searches for ways (along with many others, including Australia) to resuscitate the TPP. I strongly endorse this and I encourage businesses here today to do the same.

But diplomacy and trade deals are only one part. We require an even more skilled workforce, equipped to compete and be more productive in the future.

This brings me to my second suggestion. Business has to invest more, alongside government, in research and development, in training and education, to make sure we have a workforce and society proficient in science, technology, engineering and maths (or STEM).

We can learn from Germany’s commitment to lifelong technical and vocational education through Technische Hochschulen, Berfusschulen, the dual apprenticeship system and vocational training on the job that I have experienced first hand.

At BHP we continue to invest in significant STEM initiatives. Our Foundation has a focus on joint projects with government and communities on education equity because we believe in the power of education to drive progress, and to lift people out of poverty and away from armed conflicts.

We also have commercial reasons for this investment. We want tomorrow’s workers to have the skills to tackle tomorrow’s challenges and opportunities. A talent pool attuned to the future.

Third, business and multinational companies must make a stronger case to the publics of Australia and Germany that we are a force for good in society and the world.

That we invest to create jobs (in the case of BHP, well-paid, rural jobs) and to renew our economies so that we share the benefits of globalisation with our communities and younger people.

So that voters, then politicians, are drawn to towards us to increase our power to do good.

For too long as businesses we have complained and blamed others for the opposition to globalisation. I believe now is the time for us to act, to defend with conviction our principles, to champion the values of multilateralism and of progress. So business and political leaders in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region have to promote fairness, free trade and globalisation, and the broader benefits that business and multinational companies bring to the World. And invest in research and development, education and training.

Germany and Australia start from a good place. Germany - a strong, influential and admired nation - has the opportunity to lead Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, while Australia continues to play a critical role in the Asia-Pacific and the Southern Hemisphere.

As the world pivots towards the Asia-Pacific to secure its economic future, we must make sure both our nations’ influence is felt.

China now enjoys new influence, in part from the size and growth of its economy.

In the long term, however, less will be possible in Asia-Pacific if the best of the China model is not combined, through our influence, with best practices from the liberal multilateral consensus.

The security and prosperity of our individual businesses, and our individual nations and populations, rely on our ability to work freely, innovatively and cooperatively with each other.

Our social licence depends on it. The future global economy requires it.

We will all benefit from a better educated and more skilled workforce, from more advances in science and engineering, from increased capital investment. Coupled to and enhanced by freer trade, open borders and global cooperation, and a greater sense of fairness in the world. All of which are at the heart of our democracies and our business communities.

Thank you."


"Wood Mackenzie sees copper demand increasing significatively over global supply in the next decade and, together with it, miners’ need for reliable sources of water.

“As constant and high demand for copper leads to resources running out, copper grades will progressively diminish. As a result, water demand will increase because it will be necessary to process more material to obtain the same amount of copper,” the consultancy group wrote in a report made public this week.

Aware of this, some miners with projects in Chile are already taking steps to guarantee the continuity of their operations. In the document titled The awakening of a dormant challenge: water management in the copper-mining industry, Wood Mackenzie says that companies in the world’s top copper producer are starting to minimise their use of underground and surface water, and are gradually increasing their use of seawater and recirculated water.

Rivers, lakes, wetlands, and wells still provide 78 per cent of the water consumed by the mining industry, while seawater and recirculated water account for 15 per cent. However, according to the consultancy, the latter have seen considerable usage increases in recent years, with seawater usage growing by 250 per cent and recirculated water usage rising by 125 per cent.

Water consumption according to source and process (only surface water) 2012-2016. Source Cochilco and Wood Mackenzie.

Moving into this ‘new’ path has resulted in energy savings for many. “The operational cost is closely intertwined with the energy cost because not only it is necessary to consider the cost of water treatment but also its transportation to the operation site. On average, the cost of treating 1 m3 of water is around US$0.8. Taking into account water recirculation, the need for fresh water is roughly 0.35 m3/t ore and it must be transported between 100 and 200 kilometres and elevated between 1,000 and 4,000 metres at an average total cost of US$3-5/m3,” the report states.

In terms of capital expenditure, Wood Mackenzie says Chile’s examples have shown that desalination plants from seawater or brackish water have large operational and maintenance costs, but lower costs in terms of piping installation and fluid transport. Elevation plants that pump untreated water straight from the source to the operation site, on the other hand, have lower operational costs but higher capital costs, especially in terms of transport and piping installation.

Beyond the dollar figures, Wood Mackenzie found that mining companies have seen a major gain by tapping into seawater and recirculated water: social and political validation. “Companies such as Anglo American and BHP have previously shared the investment costs of desalination plants with the local community and the government. This has minimised their expenses, guaranteeing supply to the surrounding population and achieving a collaborative solution, such as coordinated and shared water monitoring and reporting,” the research firm says."
Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.760.552 von Popeye82 am 18.01.18 20:17:17LAAAAANGSAM blickenses

- Kellingley Colliery, once considered one of the most successful coal mines in the UK, was shut down in 2015. (Image from ITV News | Creative Commons.) -

"Lloyd's of London to divest from coal, over climate change; Firm follows other big UK and European insurers by excluding coal companies from 1 April; Lloyd’s of London, the world’s oldest insurance market, has become the latest financial firm to announce that it plans to stop investing in coal companies. Lloyd’s will start to exclude coal from its investment strategy from 1 April. The definition of what is a coal company and the criteria for divestment will be set over the coming months.

Lloyd’s of London, the world’s oldest insurance market, has become the latest financial firm to announce that it plans to stop investing in coal companies.

Lloyd’s will start to exclude coal from its investment strategy from 1 April. The definition of what is a coal company and the criteria for divestment will be set over the coming months.

The firm has long been vocal about the need to battle climate change, with insurance one of the worst affected industries by hurricanes, wildfires and flooding in recent years.

The insurance market decided last month to implement a coal exclusion policy as part of a responsible investment strategy for the central mutual fund that sits behind every insurance policy written by the Lloyd’s market.
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Inga Beale, Lloyd’s of London chief executive, said: “That means that in the areas of our portfolio where we can directly influence investment decisions we will avoid investing in companies that are involved mainly in coal.

“Is there more the insurance sector could be doing to help the world transition to a low-carbon economy by choosing sustainable or low-carbon stocks?”

Lloyd’s does not underwrite operations directly, but offers a marketplace to almost 90 syndicates of other insurers.

Lloyd’s has been slower to take action than others. Other big UK and European insurance companies, including Aviva, Allianz, Axa, Legal & General, SCOR, Swiss Re and Zurich, have been shifting away from coal and other fossil fuels due to concerns about climate risks. About £15bn has been divested by insurers in the past two years, according to a recent report from Unfriend Coal Network, a global coalition of NGOs and campaigners including 350.org and Greenpeace. It said 15 companies – almost all in Europe – have fully or partially cut financial ties by selling holdings in coal companies and refusing to insure their operations.

France’s Axa was one of the first financial firms to reduce investments in coal in May 2015 and is still leading the way. It said last month it was ditching investments and ending insurance for controversial US oil pipelines. After being criticised by campaigners for applying a threshold of 50% of revenues to define coal companies, it lowered the threshold to 30%.
Lloyd’s of London starts paying out $4.5bn of Harvey and Irma claims
Read more

The Church of England has gone further, pulling out of investing in companies that make more than 10% of their revenues from thermal coal or oil from tar sands.

Analysis by the ClimateWise coalition of the world’s biggest insurers published in December 2016 found that more frequent extreme weather events were driving up uninsured losses and making some assets uninsurable. The report concluded that the “protection gap” – the difference between the costs of natural disasters and the amount insured – had quadrupled to $100bn (£79bn) a year since the 1980s.

Insurance companies are perhaps also mindful of the danger that they could suffer a huge loss if their investments in fossil fuel companies were rendered worthless by action on climate change, as the Bank of England warned in 2015. However, some banks are still investing in coal plants, according to research from campaign groups.

Beale told the Guardian that she would be discussing the group’s new investment strategy at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos this week.

Climate change and what investors can do will feature prominently at the meeting of political and business leaders. Beale said: “It goes beyond climate change. The broader issue is how we clean up the planet.”

Investment companies and organisations divesting from coal

BMO Global Asset Management
Church of England
Legal & General
Munich Re
Swiss Re

Follow Guardian Business on Twitter at @BusinessDesk, or sign up to the daily Business Today email here."
dieses Projekt habe ich sehr, sehr lange verfolgt.
Interesse Jetzt WIEDERerwacht.
brauche noch mehr Informationen.
mal sehen.

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 56.760.720 von Popeye82 am 18.01.18 20:28:03Daniel Malchuk, quote: Copper "is sooooooo cool, I take in in bed with. EVERY night"

"Copper’s time has come
02 November 2017, 12:00 AM

Daniel Malchuk, President Operations, Minerals Americas
LME Week Bloomberg Forum, London, 1 November 2017.

Check against delivery

Thank you to Bloomberg for the opportunity to share our views on copper, it’s a pleasure to be here at LME week in London.

As a Dual Listed Company, London is one of our homes and a very important base for our European investors.

I personally have a strong affiliation with copper – my beginnings with BHP were in copper in the United States and since then I’ve gained over two decades of experience across different commodities around the world.

Even now (in my capacity as President Operations, Minerals Americas) I am responsible for many non-copper assets, I’ll have to admit that copper still has a special place in my heart!

Let me start by stating that Copper fits our strategy

For many years, we have been clear about our positive outlook for copper, and have worked extremely hard to make sure our assets are well placed to deliver copper to the world.

At BHP we think in decades and generations. Our ability to plan, work and invest for the long term is our advantage.

We choose commodities that will deliver returns through the cycle.

As you know, the theme of this forum is “East meets West” which is very appropriate for my discussion today, given that Asia is expected to remain the powerhouse of growth to fuel commodities demand such as copper for decades to come.

So, today I will focus on two things:

Why we like copper and the outlook for supply and demand; and secondly
How we will create value with our quality assets, through exploration and the application of technology.

So let me start, or rather remind you, of the market fundamentals.

Our historic positive outlook on copper – and I believe many of you will agree with me – is underpinned by strong demand drivers because of its relevance to each step of the development cycle, combined with characteristic ore quality depletion from the supply standpoint.

The world needs resources to grow – it needs them to help build new cities and provide cleaner – and ideally renewable – energy that can power whole communities.

I am telling you nothing new so far, these conditions have been well understood for a while. However, in the last few years we have seen the strong emergence of two drivers that have potential to lift this game even higher.

These are electric vehicles and renewable energy… and fortunately Copper is ideally placed to benefit from the expected upsurge in demand from both.
The rise of renewables is a positive story. Thanks to strong policy support and major technical improvements, wind and solar power generation have increased nearly 50-fold since 2000!

Solar’s share of global power generation has more than doubled in just three years – yet still accounts for a small slice of the total energy mix.

Even so, this presents a great opportunity.

Solar requires about five kilograms of copper per kilowatt – that’s more than double the copper intensity than alternative forms of generation.

And with the use of solar expected to rise around the globe, this is an enormous amount of copper to source!

Now turning from the power grid to the highways…

A hybrid car uses 40 kilograms of copper – that’s twice the amount of copper a regular petrol car uses.

A pure battery-powered electric vehicle uses even more copper – about 80 kilograms or four times that of a petrol car!

And if you think you are seeing more and more hybrid and electric vehicles on the roads, you’d be right.

To capture this insight, I’d now like to share a short animation from our Prospects blog.

So as you have seen, the global electric vehicle fleet is expected to increase from one million vehicles today to about 140 million by 2035!

We believe electric vehicles could require even more copper as they evolve – up to 105 kilograms per car.

That would see copper demand for electric vehicle fleets grow to an estimated 12 million tonnes, or more than half of the current global market for refined copper.

Sure, demand for other metals will also increase as a result of this trend, such as lithium, cobalt, nickel etc. However it is the relative magnitude which makes copper our key area of focus.

Based on total refined copper output, the value of the copper market could increase by over 50 per cent by 2035 – an opportunity worth seizing!

Now you see why copper is firmly on our radar.

But, as good as this market looks there are some hurdles we need to clear first that would set us up for the future.

Supply constraints – meeting the challenges of the copper industry

The challenges such as supply constraints we face are significant. These range from declining grades, deeper deposits, harder ore, labour productivity and water scarcity, to higher expectations from host governments and communities.

Grade decline alone has huge ramifications. Industry grades are expected to decline by 17 per cent according to Wood Mackenzie data over the next decade. Ageing mines require more effort and cost to deliver the same production.

Securing reliable power and water supply to support operations requires a proactive approach.

The over‐reliance on groundwater sources is a major issue for the industry, particularly in Chile. There will be a growing need for desalinated water to process the higher volumes of lower‐grade ore.

And BHP is not standing still.

We are applying advanced manufacturing practices such as automation, remote operations and a keen focus on improving our planning and execution of maintenance.

We have the luxury of having a phenomenal resource endowment, a portfolio of high quality, and long-life copper assets, such as Escondida, Spence, Olympic Dam, Antamina and the option at Resolution.

We have worked hard over the past decade to invest at the right time and our existing copper portfolio is now well positioned to benefit from what we believe is a brilliant future.

Exploration – bringing the future forward

In spite of our attractive resource base, we want more copper resources in our portfolio. And we believe the most valuable pathway to achieving this is through exploration, the drill-bit!

Exploration has the highest potential to deliver future returns and that is why it is a key part of our copper strategy… but we also recognise that given our high standards it is not an easy task.

Copper exploration these days is as a trade-off between depth and maturity.

The mature, well established and explored regions such as Chile are clearly less likely to host a big discovery close to the surface, with new deposits more likely to be at depth… and therefore more difficult to identify!

On the flipside, as we venture into less mature regions, such as Ecuador, where exploration activity levels have historically been lower, the potential for new discoveries closer to the surface is greater.

BHP is positioning as a global exploration leader. This is not about having the largest budget. It is about allocating the funds wisely through a highly focused and technical approach.

We have both the advantages of geoscience expertise and industry diversification. So what does this mean?

Our Copper Exploration team is leveraging our in-house petroleum exploration expertise with a specialised approach to exploration and deposit modelling.

What we call the ‘Mineral System’ allows us to identify without pre-conceived biases the best geological environments capable of hosting Tier 1 copper deposits.

Knowledge-sharing between our teams at BHP is important, but another valuable part of our exploration strategy is our academic ties.

Our partnerships with the likes of Bristol University, and the Universities of Wollongong and Western Australia, has helped us tackle the geoscience issues our explorers face. We are developing tools that measure the fertility of terrains.

We have leveraged data analytics and developed complex algorithms to be applied using Machine Learning techniques. BHP holds over 100 years of exploration data which provides a competitive advantage for building these algorithms, which have the potential to identify areas capable of developing Tier 1 deposits – This is an exciting prospect!

Our exploration techniques give us an early mover advantage, and inform us whether to continue or exit. This ensures we are sustaining a high-quality portfolio.

Our current exploration strategy targets porphyry, skarn and sedimentary hosted copper deposits globally, with a focus in the Americas, and IOCG mineralisation in South Australia. These settings host the most important Copper deposits ever found.

At the end of financial year 2017, our copper exploration portfolio comprised 79 projects covering 1.8 million hectares.

We have made, and continue to be open to, exploration alliances with junior explorers – their expertise and flexibility allow us to advance projects along the exploration pipeline. We are open to new ideas and opportunities, feel free to bring these to us!

We are aware that greenfield exploration is challenging and high-quality mineral deposits are increasingly scarce and difficult to find.

To be successful in Exploration, it requires perseverance and a stable and sustained investment through the commodity price cycle.

The rewards though – if we get it right – will be great.

Conclusion – Think big, think copper

Now to wrap everything up ….

We believe there is a great future ahead of us, full of opportunities as BHP becomes more active in adopting new technologies over the whole value chain. From exploration to marketing!

We can only grasp that future if we think big. And it is copper that will lead the way!

Copper has had great fundamentals for some time, and great potential due to the rapid rise in renewables and electric vehicles.

We are well placed to support increased copper supply into the global market, given our resource endowment.

Our existing copper assets are world-class. We have a smart exploration program and a sustainable approach that will see us be a key player in this market at a global level for years to come.

In a world that is changing, in a world that is increasingly technological, and in a world that is powered by copper – we think copper – we think big."
2018 Year of EPIC Market Disruptions???????