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Vir Biotechnology Announces New Research Demonstrating Novel Mechanisms by Which SARS-CoV-2 Enters Host Cells

Nachrichtenquelle: globenewswire
08.04.2021, 14:30  |  378   |   |   

– Growing body of evidence suggests monoclonal antibodies that target a conserved epitope have the potential to be highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 and associated known mutations –

– Newly identified cell surface proteins play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and determine how certain classes of antibodies work –

SAN FRANCISCO, April 08, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Vir Biotechnology, Inc. (Nasdaq: VIR) today announced the publication of new preclinical research highlighting novel mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) enters host cells and identifying how auxiliary receptors may impact the clinical efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The research highlights the distinct mechanism of action of non-receptor-binding motif (RBM)-targeting antibodies, such as VIR-7831 and VIR-7832, the Company’s investigational SARS-CoV-2 mAbs that target a conserved non-RBM site within the receptor binding domain (RBD).

While prior literature has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the virus binding to the ACE-2 entry receptor, findings from this research, posted on BioRxiv, highlight the importance of three additional auxiliary receptors that enhance infection mediated by the ACE-2 receptor. This new study addresses the role of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN lectins in infection and further identifies the SIGLEC1 lectin as a new participant in infection. SIGLEC1 is of particular importance because it is highly expressed and associated with SARS-CoV-2 in macrophages – an inflammatory cell type that is prominent in the lungs of patients with severe COVID-19. These cells can bind to infectious SARS-CoV-2 and present the virus to another cell to establish infection in that second cell. These auxiliary receptors also play an important role in modulating the neutralizing activity of different classes of spike-specific antibodies and may contribute to viral dissemination in the most severe COVID-19 cases.

This study addresses another important aspect related to the influence of the experimental methods used in measuring the neutralizing activity of different classes of spike-specific antibodies. Cells that overexpress ACE-2 at levels in excess of normal cells are widely used in neutralization assays because they can be infected with high efficiency. While these cell lines effectively measure the neutralizing activity of antibodies that target the RBM of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, they inadequately measure the neutralizing activity of non-RBM antibodies, as well as antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike. The NTD is a major target of human immunity to SARS-CoV-2. This observation indicates the significant limitations of the use of cells overexpressing ACE-2 for studies of mAbs and measuring serum neutralizing antibodies elicited by vaccination or infection.

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Vir Biotechnology Announces New Research Demonstrating Novel Mechanisms by Which SARS-CoV-2 Enters Host Cells – Growing body of evidence suggests monoclonal antibodies that target a conserved epitope have the potential to be highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 and associated known mutations – – Newly identified cell surface proteins play a role in …

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