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"Russia dashes plans to make its oil market alliance with OPEC permanent - The marriage between Russia and OPEC is off. Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak on Friday poured cold water on long-simmering plans to make Moscow's alliance with OPEC and other oil producers permanent. The group of roughly two dozen producers has been managing global petroleum supply for the last two years in order to rebalance the market after a prolonged and punishing oil price downturn. The effort succeeded in shrinking global crude stockpiles and boosting prices to four-year highs — until the market suddenly crashed again in early October. The group has agreed to a fresh round of output cuts that begin Jan. 1, reports CNBC; "

Antwort auf Beitrag Nr.: 59.207.276 von Popeye82 am 13.11.18 21:08:02IMPORTANT Worldnews(2)


"Canada, UK, World Bank to help phase out coal; there has been a renewed push to move developing countries away from their dependence on coal, with the World Bank, Canada, and the UK announcing financial, technical and advisory support for any country willing to move towards cleaner sources of energy

The World Bank noted that the top three coal producing countries were China, India and Indonesia, so future coal mine closures would be concentrated in Asia.

To this end, the Canadian government pledged to give C$275 million (US$205.9 million) to fund the Energy Transition and Coal Phase-Out Programme, which will help developing countries in Asia slow coal production and scale up energy efficiency and low-carbon energy alternatives.

Canada's minister of environment and climate change Catherine McKenna said the phase-out of coal was required to meet the Paris Agreement targets.

"People need to be at the heart of our policies to tackle climate change. We know we have to phase out coal in a way that supports coal workers and coal communities, because the transition is not always easy," she said.

The UK government also pledged £20 million (US$25.3 million) to the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme, which provides knowledge and technical assistance to help low- and middle-income countries implement environmentally sustainable energy solutions.

The UK's minister for energy and clean growth Claire Perry pointed out that the UK had gone more than 1,700 hours without coal in 2018, but climate change was a global problem requiring a united response.

"This World Bank fund, backed by £20 million from UK Government, will allow world-leading expertise to be shared globally to encourage developing countries to move away from coal power and embrace renewable energy, helping them to save the planet while giving their economies a vital boost," she said.

The World Bank said both the programmes would support the uptake of solar and battery storage, geothermal and offshore wind development, coal plant closure, and improvement in energy efficiency.

It said the financial support from the two countries would also allow the bank to expand its work in helping countries address the socioeconomic impacts on workers and communities caused by closing coal mines.

"This means taking steps to protect jobs and skills and preserve the environment, including through strong social safety nets for coal mine workers and the reclamation and repurposing of coal mine areas," the World Bank said.

It has outlined the lessons learned from already completed coal mine closures and provided key steps for governments to take to minimise social conflict and economic distress in a report with COP24 in Poland: Managing Coal Mine Closure: Achieving a Just Transition for All.

The bank said, although coal mine closures had significant socioeconomic impacts, countries could mitigate some of the impacts through early engagement and strong social assistance programmes for workers, families and communities.

"Governments play a leading role in this transition, bearing the cost of physical closure of mines and labour transition programmes, even when coal mines are privately owned," it said.

The World Bank said governments could implement labour mobility schemes to move communities in coal mining areas to areas with stronger economies and new job prospects.

World Bank senior director and head of the energy and extractives global practice Riccardo Puliti said the bank's focus was on helping countries accelerate the energy transition.

"A just transition for all means people's livelihoods and communities need to be protected and that requires a carefully managed", sustained, long-term approach. Governments must prepare well in advance of any coal mine closures, implementing strong safety nets for workers ahead of job losses, he said."

- Thoisoi2 - Chemical Experiments!
Am 10.12.2016 veröffentlicht
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So today I will tell you about the most rare metal on Earth - iridium.
Iridium is a transitional metal, which is located in the middle of the periodic table, below rhodium. If we take a look at the prevalence of all elements in the earth's crust, Iridium holds the last place, that is a billion atoms of all that there is and only one atom of iridium. This metal is 40 times rarer than gold.
In much higher concentrations iridium is found in meteorites and also in the depths of the Earth, in magma. Interestingly enough, in the layers of rock sediments, though more precisely in the formation of clay, that is aged about 66 million years there were found high concentrations of iridium and this can indicate the collision of Earth with a huge meteorite in the past, which in theory was the cause of the death of the dinosaurs. In it’s appearance iridium is a shiny metal that does not oxidize in air.
This metal has almost the highest density of all metals, just 0.12% lower than that of osmium - the most dense metal.
In this tiny tiny metal droplet, which is of the size of a match head, we have 1 gram of iridium. To help you understand how high is the density of iridium, I will show other metals with the same mass for comparison.
Lead, copper, gallium, zinc, magnesium, and the lightest metal - lithium.
The volumes of the first and last metal differ by about 30 times, although their mass is the same. Iridium is also a very hard metal that is firmer than the solid steel in 1.5 (one and a half) times. Iridium, in addition to its rarity is even the most stable metal that does not oxidize in air up to 2000 degrees, and is not soluble in either acid or aqua regia. Iridium can only react with the fluorine at temperatures of about 600 degrees.
Unfortunately, due to the low activity of iridium, I cannot conduct any chemical experiments or have quality reactions with it.
The only thing that I can do is make a fine powder of iridium and set it on fire in the air, but as you can see, in this case iridium dust is burning quite slowly and also requires dispersing it in the air. For the first time on youtube, you can observe a burning iridium. Also, due to the low activity of iridium, the metal does not tarnish in air, even when heated to above 1,000 degrees. The only thing that the drop of iridium got covered with is a partially evaporated ceramic layer, the one that the forceps are made from. Iridium compounds are can be either brown or yellow, such as the complex of Vasca, which is used as a catalyst in organic chemistry.
By the way, Iridium is the only element that can give away 9 electrons and form compounds with +9 (plus nine) oxidation state.
Iridium now finds many uses in science and technology.
In most cases, we will probably find iridium in spark plugs for vehicles, due to the high stability of iridium to oxidation under the influence of electric discharge.
Pure iridium is used for making crucibles for growing single crystals, foil for making non-amalgam cathodes, as well as as a part of the highly resistant to corrosion alloys.
The first standard of mass of one kilogram was created in 1889 using an alloy composition of 90% platinum and 10% iridium and is called the International Prototype Kilogram, it is still kept in the Paris Chamber of Weights and Measures.
Now you know more about one more of the elements, if you would like the scientific series of the elements to continue, please subscribe to my channel and also throw in some likes if you can! Thank you for watching.
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